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Posts for category: Child Health Care

By Maria Katsoulis-Emnace MD, FAAP / Lionel Foz MD, FAAP / S.K. Mate MD, FAAP
November 03, 2017
Category: Child Health Care
Tags: Eczema  

It’s normal for a child to get a rash at one time or another. But one common type of rash, known as eczema, can be especially troubling. Eczema refers to many types of skin inflammation, with atopic dermatitis being one of the most common forms of eczema to develop during a baby’s first year.  

You may first notice signs that your child has eczema as early as one to four months of age, appearing as a red, raised rash usually on the face, behind the knees and in the bends of elbows. The rash is typically very itchy and with time may spread and lead to an infection. The patches can range from small and mild to extremely itchy, which may make a small child irritable.

While the exact cause of eczema is not known, the tendency to have eczema is often inherited. Allergens or irritants in the environment, such as winter weather, pollen or certain foods, can trigger the rash. For most infants and small children, eczema improves during childhood. In the meantime, however, parents should help reduce the triggers that cause eczema outbreaks and control the itch to prevent infection.

Managing Eczema

While there is no cure for eczema at this time, there is treatment. Talk to your pediatrician about ways to alleviate itching and reduce the rash. Minimizing how often a child scratches the rash is especially important as the more the child scratches, the greater the risk of infection.

To prevent flare-ups and help your child cope with eczema, parents should follow these tips:

  • With your doctor’s direction, use antihistamine to relieve itching and reduce scratching.
  • Minimize nighttime itching by having child sleep in long-sleeved clothing to prevent scratching through the night.
  • Apply cortisone creams or medication to reduce inflammation.
  • Use mild soaps during bathing and avoid frequent, hot baths, as they will dry out the child’s skin.
  • Wrap moist bandages around the affected areas of the skin before bed to soothe and rehydrate the child’s skin.
  • Avoid triggers that aggravate eczema, such as rapid changes in temperatures or seasonal allergies.

Many kids will outgrow atopic dermatitis, but it is still important to treat the condition right away to keep it from getting worse. Work with your pediatrician to find the best combination of skin care strategies and medications to ease the itch and inflammation and keep infection at bay.

By Maria Katsoulis-Emnace MD, FAAP / Lionel Foz MD, FAAP / S.K. Mate MD, FAAP
October 13, 2017
Category: Child Health Care
Tags: Asthma  

Child AsthmaA common condition seen in kids and teens, asthma is a lung condition that causes trouble breathing and shortness of breath. During an attack, the bronchial airways become inflamed and the muscles surrounding them constrict, making breathing difficult. Repeated attacks may cause permanent lung damage and in severe cases can be life-threatening. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, more than 23 million Americans have the condition and more than one-quarter of them are children under the age of 18.

Asthma Causes

There are a variety of triggers that can lead to an asthma flare-up or make asthma worse. These vary for every person, but common triggers include:

  • Allergens, such as animal dander, pollens, mold and house dust mites
  • Environmental irritants, such as cigarettes, dry air, fragrances and air pollution
  • Infections, such as pneumonia, sinus infection and viral infections of the nose and throat
  • Exercise
  • Stress

Does my child have asthma?

According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, asthma is the most common chronic medical problem in children. Asthma symptoms will vary in frequency and severity, and most children with asthma develop their first symptoms before the age of five.  Common signs include:

  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Tightness in chest

If you think your child may have asthma, contact your pediatrician. They can help you identify the early signs of childhood asthma and provide support for prevention and treatment.

A child may be at a greater risk for having asthma if there is a family history of asthma or if the child has eczema or frequent bouts of chronic lower respiratory problems occurring before the first birthday.  Keeping your kids away from cigarette smoke in the home or car, removing pets from the house, paying attention to pollen and air quality forecasts and monitoring exercise are all ways to reduce asthma problems.  

The good news is that the majority of asthma cases are only mild, and when the condition is properly managed with medications and extra caution, severe asthma flare-ups can be prevented.  Work with your child’s pediatrician to learn more about the condition and ensure your child leads a healthy, normal, active life.

By Maria Katsoulis-Emnace MD, FAAP / Lionel Foz MD, FAAP / S.K. Mate MD, FAAP
April 28, 2017
Category: Child Health Care
Tags: Head Lice  

Head LiceTwo words parents dread hearing--head lice. Head lice are parasites that can be found on the heads of people, most common among preschool and elementary children. Each year millions of school-aged children in the U.S. get head lice. Though it may be a nuisance, the good news is that lice will not cause medical harm and in most cases can be effectively treated at home.

Lice are highly contagious and can spread quickly from person to person, especially in group settings, such as schools, sporting events and slumber parties. Head lice spread mainly by direct head-to-head contact with a person who already has head lice, but it can also be transferred indirectly when kids share combs, brushes, pillows or hats. Because children play closely together and often in large groups, all children can potentially be affected, and poor personal hygiene is not a significant risk factor for getting head lice. In other words, if your child is exposed to someone with head lice, they have a pretty good chance of bringing it home as well.

Does your child have lice?

The most obvious sign of head lice is an itchy scalp. If you notice your child scratching behind their ears or at the back of his neck, examine the child’s head for signs of lice. Lice are very small, but it is possible to detect them with the naked eye. Combing through the child’s hair with a fine-toothed comb can help reveal any eggs. If you are unsure, visit your pediatrician. An itchy scalp may also be caused by an allergy, eczema or dandruff.

Don’t Panic—Head Lice is Very Treatable

If your child has head lice, take action immediately once you’ve made the diagnosis as lice can spread easily from one person to another, putting other members of your household at risk. The most common treatment is an over-the-counter or prescription cream, lotion or shampoo. You apply it to the skin or scalp to kill the lice and eggs. In many cases, two treatments are necessary. If after two treatments you believe your child may still have head lice, contact your pediatrician. Your child’s doctor can recommend a different form of treatment.

You may be tempted to throw away bedding, clothing or other items in your household, but a simple wash will do the trick. Toss your child’s bed sheets, clothes, hats and other belongings in the washing machine in hot water, and dry on high heat to kill any remaining lice. Other members of your household should also be checked for lice.

To prevent kids from getting lice or becoming re-infested, tell kids not to share combs, brushes, hats or other personal items with anyone else. To prevent head lice, examine your child’s scalp regularly, especially during the school year, to detect lice early.

Remember, lice are very preventable and treatable. Be patient and follow the treatments and prevention tips as directed by your child’s pediatrician for keeping lice at bay and your household bug-free.

By Maria Katsoulis-Emnace MD, FAAP / Lionel Foz MD, FAAP / S.K. Mate MD, FAAP
April 18, 2017
Category: Child Health Care
Tags: Concussions  

Child's ConcussionA hit to the head during a soccer game or a hard fall from skateboarding may result in a serious head injury and even a concussion. The American Academy of Pediatrics describes a concussion as any injury to the brain that disrupts normal brain function on a temporary or permanent basis. These injuries are typically caused by a blow to the head, most often occurring while playing contact sports such as football, hockey, soccer, wrestling or skateboarding.

For some children, concussions only last for a short while. Other times, a person can have symptoms of a concussion that last for several days or weeks following the injury. Not all symptoms of concussions will be obvious, and in some cases take several hours to set in. Look for these signs of a concussion if your child suffers a head injury:

  • Headaches
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Dizziness or loss of balance
  • Memory loss or confusion
  • Poor concentration
  • Vision problems
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability or changes in mood
  • Sensitivity to light or noise

Seek Medical Attention

If your child injures his head or you believe he may have a concussion, it is important that the child discontinues play immediately and visits a healthcare provider for an evaluation. All concussions are serious and should be monitored right away. A pediatrician can properly diagnose the concussion and its severity, and then make appropriate treatment recommendations.

Rest from all activities is the best treatment for concussions. Your pediatrician can make appropriate recommendations for when the child should return to future play. Recovery time depends on the child and the severity of the concussion.

Preventing Head Injuries

Not all head injuries can be avoided, but you can do a few important things to prevent them.

  • Buckle Up. Make sure your child is properly buckled up in a seat belt, car seat or booster seat.  
  • Safety Gear. If your child plays sports, make sure he wears appropriate headgear and other safety equipment.
  • Awareness. Children should be taught how to play safe and understand the importance of reporting any type of head injury to their parent or coach.

All head injuries should be taken seriously.  Early detection and treatment is the best way to prevent serious complications. It’s never a bad idea to contact your pediatrician when you have questions or concerns about your child’s head injury.